10,000 Year Old Textiles

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Carbon dating identifies South America’s oldest textiles

http://esciencenews.com/articles/2011/04/13/carbon.dating.identifies.south.americas.oldest.textiles

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Wikipedia; Guitarrero Cave

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guitarrero_Cave

EARLY HUACA PRIETA (13,000 BCE)

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13,000 BCE Inhabitants at Huaca Prieta, Peru Exhibit Advanced Society

http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/june-2013/article/groundbreaking-discovery-of-early-civilization-in-ancient-peru

CHINCHORRO CULTURE (5050 BC)

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Wikipedia; Chinchorro

http://www.pnas.org/content/102/47/17241.full

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Chinchorro Culture: Pioneers of the Coast of the Atacama Desert

http://www.academia.edu/4538873/Chinchorro_Culture_Pioneers_of_the_Coast_of_the_Atacama_Desert

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Mummy tattoos hint at ancient Andean acupuncture

http://content.usatoday.com/communities/sciencefair/post/2010/10/mummy-tattoos-hint-at-ancient-andean-acupuncture/1#.VekxqLRkjR5

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Climate change shaped ancient burial rituals

http://www.nature.com/news/climate-change-shaped-ancient-burial-rituals-1.11161

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Chinchorro Mummies

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/1995/03/chinchorro-mummies/arriaza-text

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The 7,000-Year-Old Chinchorro Mummies of the Andes

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/7000-year-old-chinchorro-mummies-andes-001947

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Chinchorro Mummies: Bodies ‘Littered The Earth’ In Chile’s Atacama Desert 7,000 Years Ago, Study Says

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/14/chinchorro-mummies-chile-atacama_n_1775033.html

Update on the Oldest Mummies in the World in Peru

https://www.cnn.com/travel/article/worlds-oldest-mummies-chile/index.html





 

ANCIENT ANDEAN CANALS (4700 BC)

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Evidence Found for Canals That Watered Ancient Peru

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/03/science/03peru.html?ex=1293944400&en=4d325c1548e573d2&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss

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Ancient Canals in Andes Reveal Early Agriculture

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/12/1205_051205_peru_canals.html

Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes

http://www.pnas.org/content/102/47/17241.full

NORTE CHICO CIVILIZATION (3700-2000 BC)

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Early Monumental Architecture on the Peruvian Coast; JQ Jacobs

http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/coast.html

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Ancient Peru; The First Cities

http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/june-2011/article/ancient-peru-the-first-cities

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First Andes Civilization

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4115421.stm

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With Climate Swing, a Culture Bloomed in Americas

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18888119

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Wikipedia; Norte Chico Civilization

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norte_Chico_civilization

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Earliest Complex Culture in the Americas

http://www.mesoweb.com/reports/caral2.html#

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The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization: An Evolving Hypothesis

http://www.hallofmaat.com/modules.php?name=Articles&file=article&sid=85

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Archaeologists shed new light on Americas’ earliest known civilization

http://www.niu.edu/pubaffairs/presskits/peru/release.html

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Oldest Civilization in the Americas Revealed; Charles Mann

http://www.charlesmann.org/articles/Norte-chico-Science-01-05.pdf

Crucible of Andean Civilization The Peruvian Coast from 3000 to 1800 BC

http://www.academia.edu/1572844/Crucible_of_Andean_Civilization_The_Peruvian_Coast_from_3000_to_1800_BC

HUARICANGA (3500 BC)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huaricanga

SECHIN BAJO (3500 BC)

 

 

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Archeologists find 5,500-year-old plaza in Peru

http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/02/26/us-peru-archeology-idUSN2524245020080226

 

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The New World’s First Monumental Civilization

http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/june-2013/article/the-new-worlds-first-monumental-civilization

 

 

CERRO SECHIN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerro_Sech%C3%ADn

The Gruesome Sacrifice Carvings of Cerro Sechín, 3,600-Year-Old Ceremonial Center of Peru

https://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/gruesome-sacrifice-carvings-cerro-sech-n-3600-year-old-ceremonial-center-021111

CARAL  (3000-1800 BC)

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Wikipedia; Caral

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caral

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Caral

http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/special/2008/09/211_28298.html

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Caral; Cradle of American Civilization

http://www.tiwy.com/pais/peru/caral/eng.phtml

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The Caral Figurines

http://enperublog.com/2010/10/16/the-caral-figurines/

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Caral; First City in the New World?

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/first-city-in-the-new-world-66643778/

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Philip Coppens; Caral

http://www.philipcoppens.com/caral.html

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The 5000 Year Old Pyramid City; Caral

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/5000-year-old-pyramid-city-caral-002016

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Ancient Caral Figurines

http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/ancient-caral-civilisation-3800-year-old-statuettes-priestess-politicians-discovered-peru-1505386

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America’s first city. The case of Late Archaic Caral

http://www.academia.edu/1572833/Americas_first_city._The_case_of_Late_Archaic_Caral

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KOTOSH RELIGIOUS TRADITION (3000 BC)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kotosh_Religious_Tradition

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WIKIPEDIA; LA GALGADA

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Galgada_(archaeological_site)

3,800 Year Old Wall Reliefs Discovered in Peru

http://www.itimes.sg/archaeology-3800-year-old-wall-relief-mysterious-structures-discovered-peru-27076

The Oldest Adobe Structures in Peru Uncovered

https://www.laprensalatina.com/discovery-in-peru-shows-andes-adobe-architecture-dates-back-over-5000-years/

Archaeologist at Coral Find Proof of Major Structures at Caral Were Astronomically Oriented

https://www.laprensalatina.com/study-oldest-civilization-in-americas-used-astronomy-to-orient-buildings/

VENTARRON (2000 BC)

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Wikipedia; Ventarron

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventarron

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Ventarrón, one of the New World’s oldest archaeological sites (PHOTOS)

http://www.peruthisweek.com/news-ventarron-one-of-the-new-worlds-oldest-archaeological-sites-photos-103488

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Ancient temple wall discovered, shaped like Andean Chakana

http://enperublog.com/2009/06/08/ancient-temple-wall-discovered-shaped-like-andean-chakana/

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New World’s Oldest Mural

http://archive.archaeology.org/0803/trenches/mural.html

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Oldest Temple, Mural in the Americas Found in Peru

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/11/071112-peru-temple.html

CUPINSIQUE (1500-500 BC)

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Wikipedia; Cupinsique

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cupisnique

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Spider God Temple Found in Peru

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/10/081029-peru-temple.html

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The new temples of Collud-Zarpán

http://www.granpaititi.com/index.php?id=148&lang=en

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3000 year old temples discovered in Lambayeque

http://enperublog.com/2008/10/22/3000-year-old-temples-discovered-in-lambayeque/

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Wikipedia; Caballo Muerto

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caballo_Muerto

PACOPAMPA (1200-500 BC)

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Peru: Archaeologists find 2,800-year-old tombs in Pacopampa, Cajamarca

http://www.peruthisweek.com/news-2893-Peru-Archaeologists-find-2800-year-old-tombs-in-Pacopampa-Cajamarca/

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Wikipedia; Pacopampa

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacopampa

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Lady of Pacopampa: A woman born to rule

http://enperublog.com/2009/10/19/lady-of-pacopampa-a-woman-born-to-rule/#more-3364

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Elaborate 700 BCE Tomb Uncovered at Pacopamapa, Peru

Ancient Origins has the story here with a set of very good photos of the finds;
http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/lost-2-700-years-tomb-serpent-jaguar-priests-uncovered-peru-003852

Skeletal Remains at the Site of Pacopampa in Peru Exhibit Signs of Ritual Violence

The research is published in the peer reviewed journal;
Nagaoka et al, PLoS One, 2017

And the report is in Business Insider, with photos;
http://www.businessinsider.com/andean-civilizations-pacopampa-ritual-violence-study-2017-10

CHAVIN DE HUANTAR (1200-400 BC)

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Wikipedia; Chavin de Huantar

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chav%C3%ADn_de_Huantar

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Listening to the Gods of Ancient Peru

http://archive.archaeology.org/1107/trenches/chavin_de_huantar_caves_acoustics.html

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Magic Sounds of Peru’s Ancient Chavín de Huántar

http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/december-2011/article/magic-sounds-of-peru-s-ancient-chavin-de-huantar

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The Tello Obelisk; JQ Jacobs

http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/tello.html

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Animal Utilization at Chavin de Huanter

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/chavin/chavin.pdf

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The cult centre and underground world of Chavín de Huántar

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/cult-centre-and-underground-world-chav-n-de-hu-ntar-001689

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Religion and Authority at Chavin de Huantar

http://www.academia.edu/6621192/Religion_and_Authority_at_Chavin_de_Huantar_from_Rietberg_Chavin_exhibit_catalog_volume

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CONTEXT, CONSTRUCTION, AND RITUAL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTHORITY AT CHAVÍN DE HUÁNTAR

https://www.academia.edu/2476133/CONTEXT_CONSTRUCTION_AND_RITUAL_IN_THE_DEVELOPMENT_OF_AUTHORITY_AT_CHAVÍN_DE_HUÁNTAR

Robots at Chavin de Huantar in Peru; New Discoveries


https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2018/08/robots-help-find-new-underground.html#S1MRBRGsrKJO3XKU.97

Chavin-de-Huantar_0

Huge Hidden Chambers and Passageways Being Studied at the Chan Chan Site in Peru

https://www.livescience.com/secret-passages-ancient-temple-peruvian-andes

CHAVIN (900-200 BC)

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Wikipedia; Chavin Culture

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chav%C3%ADn_culture

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From and Meaning in Chavin Art

http://vm136.lib.berkeley.edu/ANTH/emeritus/rowe/pub/chavin/

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Underground Chavin

http://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=34573

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Discovery of shell stash sheds light on ancient society

http://news.stanford.edu/news/2001/october24/chavin-1024.html

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Trade Patterns in the Central Highlands of Peru in the First Millennium B.C.

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/chavin/chavin-trade.pdf

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Latin American Studies; Chavin

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/chavin.htm

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Understanding Chavín and the Origins of Andean Civilization; J. Q. Jacobs

http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/chavin.html

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Two Chavin Gargoyles Found

http://www.peruthisweek.com/news-two-chavin-gargoyles-found-in-chaupimarca-pasco-106545

PARACAS (600-175 BC)

http://earthsky.org/earth/ancient-peruvian-culture-predating-nazcas-used-desert-lines-to-guide-people-to-solstice-festivities

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The Paracas Culture

http://www.tampere.fi/ekstrat/taidemuseo/arkisto/peru/800/paracas_en.htm

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Latin American Studies; Paracas

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/paracas.htm

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Art and Artifacts; Paracas

http://www.lindakreft.com/pdf/paracas_art.pdf

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Wikipedia; Paracas Culture

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracas_culture

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Paracas Pre-Nazca Lines

http://earthsky.org/earth/ancient-peruvian-culture-predating-nazcas-used-desert-lines-to-guide-people-to-solstice-festivities

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Wikipedia; The Paracas Candelabra

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracas_Candelabra

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Ancient Origins; The Paracas Candelabra

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/mysterious-prehistoric-geoglyph-paracas-candelabra-002203

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Cerro del Gentil: A Paracas Mound Site in the Chincha Valley, Peru

http://www.academia.edu/3130589/Cerro_del_Gentil_A_Paracas_Mound_Site_in_the_Chincha_Valley_Peru

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The ecstatic shaman theme of Paracas textiles

http://www.academia.edu/3603285/The_ecstatic_shaman_theme_of_Paracas_textiles

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A Paracas Bowl Part 2

http://www.academia.edu/10355663/A_Paracas_Bowl_Part_II

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Practice and meaning in spiral-wrapped batons and cords from Cerrillos, a Late Paracas site in the Ica Valley, Peru

http://www.academia.edu/8603822/Practice_and_meaning_in_spiral-wrapped_batons_and_cords_from_Cerrillos_a_Late_Paracas_site_in_the_Ica_Valley_Peru

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Feathered Effigy/Burial from Cerrillos, Ica Valley, Peru

http://www.academia.edu/1967268/Feathered_Effigy_Burial_from_Cerrillos_Ica_Valley_Peru

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New Nazca and Paracas Geoglyphs Discovered Using New Technology

https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/04/new-nasca-nazca-lines-discovery-peru-archaeology/

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Scientific Analysis of 2,000 Year Old Paracas Mummies in Southern Peru

https://www.livescience.com/49892-peru-mummy-hair-diet.html

Ancient Peruvian Culture Used Chameleon Urine as a Paint Binder

National Geographic has the report here with many photos;
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/2018/12/ancient-paracas-pots-reptile-urine-chavin-connections/

More photos here;
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6487473/Painting-urine-Ancient-Peruvian-culture-used-chameleon-waste-create-white-paint.html